Since the 14th century, the caliphate was claimed by the first Turkish sultans of the Ottoman Empire with Murad I, and they gradually came to be seen as the de facto leaders and representatives of the Islamic world. Edirne and later Constantinople (now Istanbul), the Ottoman caliphs ruled over an empire that, at its peak, covered Anatolia, most of the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and extended deep into East -Europe.
Encouraged by the Peace of Westphalia and the Industrial Revolution, regrouped European powers and challenged Ottoman rule. Largely because of poor leadership, archaic political standards, and lost an inability to keep pace with technological progress in Europe, the Ottoman Empire was unable to respond effectively to Europe’s resurgence and its position as a leading great power.
By the end of the nineteenth century, had problems with the Ottoman Empire become crises. The Empire underwent make up for a period of secularization of European developments, including the adoption of Western criminal law and the replacement of the traditional laws with European legislation. Territorial losses in conflicts such as the Russian-Turkish wars significantly reduced Ottoman power and influence, and years of financial mismanagement came to a head when the government defaulted on its loans in 1875.